08/02/2022 #1 – Recent reviews of Host Microbe interactions

Welcome to HostMicrobeLit, a blog for highlighting research in host-microbe interactions. This first post will be highlighting some excellent review reviews published in the field. (I’m going to try do a reviews post at least once every couple of months). This one will be a bit more Microbiome focused.

First up is an open access article in Gut containing two very big names in Microbiome research Willem de Vos & Patrice Cani.

Gut microbiome and health: mechanistic insights – de Vos et al. Gut. 2022

The article gives a great overview of current knowledge of how the gut microbiome interacts with the host, with a specific focus on microbially produced compounds (e.g. short chain fatty acids, bile acids). But it also digs into mechanisms often less discussed in the literature such as bacterial activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, a transcription factor that regulates numerous genes involved in inflammation and immunity.

The article ends by highlighting the importantance for moving from correlation to causation in gut microbiome research.

The second review I want to highlight today is an article published in Nature Reviews Microbiology.

Microbiome-based therapeutics – Sorbara & Palmer. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2022

Frankly an excellent overview of the current state of the field. In particular Fig 1 is very useful at summarising the different classess of microbiome based therapeutics currently being explored. The review unsurprisingly focuses a lot on FMT discussing it’s current application and clinical trials using FMT. But also contains some discussion of therapies beyond FMT. I did feel some discussion of bacteriophage was missing, as far as I can see it wasn’t even mentioned! I did enjoy this quote from the end, basically more mulit-omics!

Given the marked genomic variation in bacterial strains that constitute the microbiota and our incomplete understanding of their metabolism and cooperativity in complex populations, advances in this field will require the type of curiosity-driven research that occurs in academic laboratories and that focuses on the microbiology, metagenomics, biochemistry, metabolomics and ecology of symbiotic bacterial populations.

A few other reviews/comments/highlights that stood out to me recently

Clostridioides difficile toxins: mechanisms of action and antitoxin therapeutics – Kordus et al. Nature Reviews Microbiology. Published Jan 2022.

Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in microbiome investigations – Bauermeister et al. Nature Reviews Microbiology. Published Sept 2021.

The Role of Dietary Interventions in The Regulation of Host-Microbe Interactions – Li et al. Frontiers in Cellular & Infection Microbiology. Pubflished Feb 2022.

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